南海各方行為宣言



[背景 ] 2002年11月4日,在金邊舉行的中國與東盟領導人會議期間,中國與東盟各國外長及外長代表簽署了《南海各方行為宣言》(簡稱《宣言》)。 中國國務院總理朱鎔基和東盟各國領導人出席了簽字儀式。

《宣言》確認中國與東盟致力於加強睦鄰互信夥伴關係,共同維護南海地區的和平與穩定。 《宣言》強調通過友好協商和談判,以和平方式 解決南海有關爭議。 在爭議解決之前,各方承諾保持克制,不採取使爭議複雜化和擴大化的行動,並本著合作與諒解的精神,尋求建立相互信任的途徑,包括開展海 洋環保、搜尋與求助、打擊跨國犯罪等合作。

《宣言》是中國同東盟國家共同簽署的一份重要的政治檔,體現了各方致力於維護南海穩定、增進互信和推進合作的政治意願。

《宣言》簽署以來,中國和東盟國家一道遵循《宣言》的宗旨和原則,保持密切溝通,積極探討合作。 中國同東盟國家召開了三次高官會,成立了聯合工 作組並已召開6次會議,決定開展南海防災減災、海洋搜救、海洋科研等6個合作專案,其中中國承辦3個專案,東盟國家承辦3個專案。

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《南海各方行為宣言》

中華人民共和國 和 東盟 各成員國政府,重申各方決心鞏固和發展各國人民和政府之間業已存在的友誼與合作,以促進面向 21 世紀睦鄰互信夥伴關係;

認識到為增進本地區的和平、穩定、經濟發展與繁榮,中國和東盟有必要促進 南海 地區和平、友好與和諧的環境;

承諾促進 1997 年中華人民共和國與 東盟成員國 國家元首或政府首腦會晤《聯合聲明》所確立的原則和目標;

希望為和平與永久解決有關國家間的分歧和爭議創造有利條件;

謹發表如下宣言:

一、各方重申以《聯合國憲章》宗旨和原則、 1982 年《聯合國海洋法公約》、《東南亞友好合作條約》、和平共處五項原則以及其它公認的國際法原則作為處理國家間關係的基本準則。

二、各方承諾根據上述原則,在平等和相互尊重的基礎上,探討建立信任的途徑。

三、各方重申尊重並承諾,包括 1982 年《聯合國海洋法公約》在內的公認的國際法原則所規定的在南海的航行及飛越自由。

四、有關各方承諾根據公認的國際法原則,包括 1982 年《聯合國海洋法公約》,由直接有關的主權國家通過友好磋商和談判,以和平方式解決它們的領土和管轄權爭議,而不訴諸武力或以武力相威脅。

五、各方承諾保持自我克制,不採取使爭議複雜化、擴大化和影響和平與穩定的行動,包括不在現無人居住的島、礁、灘、沙或其它自然構造上採取居住的行動,並以建設性的方式處理它們的分歧。

在和平解決它們的領土和管轄權爭議之前,有關各方承諾本著合作與諒解的精神,努力尋求各種途徑建立相互信任,包括:

(一)在各方國防及軍隊官員之間開展適當的對話和交換意見;

(二)保證對處於危險境地的所有公民予以公正和人道的待遇;

(三)在自願基礎上向其它有關各方通報即將舉行的聯合軍事演習;

(四)在自願基礎上相互通報有關情況。

六、在全面和永久解決爭議之前,有關各方可探討或開展合作,可包括以下領域:

(一)海洋環保;

(二)海洋科學研究;

(三)海上航行和交通安全;

(四)搜尋與救助;

(五)打擊跨國犯罪,包括但不限於打擊毒品走私、海盜和海上武裝搶劫以及軍火走私。

在具體實施之前,有關各方應就雙邊及多邊合作的模式、範圍和地點取得一致意見。

七、有關各方願通過各方同意的模式,就有關問題繼續進行磋商和對話,包括對遵守本宣言問題舉行定期磋商,以增進睦鄰友好關係和提高透明度,創造和諧、相互理解與合作,推動以和平方式解決彼此間爭議。

八、各方承諾尊重本宣言的條款並採取與宣言相一致的行動。

九、各方鼓勵其他國家尊重本宣言所包含的原則。

十、有關各方重申制定南海行為準則將進一步促進本地區和平與穩定,並同意在各方協商一致的基礎上,朝最終達成該目標而努力。

本宣言于 2002 年 11 月 4 日在柬埔寨王國金邊簽署。

DECLARATION ON THE CONDUCT OF PARTIES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

The Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Governments of the Member States of ASEAN,

REAFFIRMING their determination to consolidate and develop the friendship and cooperation existing between their people and the governments with the view to promoting a 21st century-oriented partnership of good neighbourliness and mutual trust;

 

COGNIZANT of the need to promote a peaceful, friendly and harmonious environment in the South China Sea between ASEAN and China for the enhancement of peace, stability, economic growth and prosperity in the region;

COMMITTED to enhancing the principles and objectives of the 1997 Joint Statement of the Meeting of President of the People’s Republic of China and the Heads of State/Government of the Member States of ASEAN;

DESIRING to enhance favourable conditions for a peaceful and durable solution of differences and disputes among the countries concerned;

HEREBY DECLARE the following:

1.The Parties reaffirm their commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and other universally recognized principles of international law which shall serve as the basic norms governing state-to-state relations;

2.The Parties are committed to exploring ways for building trust and confidence in accordance with the above-mentioned principles and on the basis of equality and mutual respect;

3.The Parties reaffirm their respect for and commitment to the freedom of navigation in and overflight above the South China Sea as provided for by the universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea;

4.The Parties concerned undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of force, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea;

5.The Parties undertake to exercise self- restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability including, among others, refraining from action of inhabiting on the presently uninhabited islands, reefs, shoals, cays and other features and to handle their differences in a constructive manner;

Pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, the Parties concerned undertake to intensify efforts to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence between and among them, including:

 

a. holding dialogues and exchange of views as appropriate between their defense and military officials;

b. ensuring just and humane treatment of all persons who are either in danger or in distress;

c. notifying, on a voluntary basis, other Parties concerned of any impending joint/combined military exercise; and

d. exchanging, on a voluntary basis, relevant information.

6. Pending a comprehensive and durable settlement of the disputes, the Parties concerned may explore or undertake cooperative activities. These may include the following:

a.marine environmental protection;

b.marine scientific research;

c. safety of navigation and communication at sea;

d.search and rescue operation; and

e.combating transnational crime, including but not limited to trafficking in illicit drugs, piracy and armed robbery at sea, and illegal traffic in arms.

The modalities, scope and locations, in respect of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, should be agreed upon by the Parties concerned prior to their actual implementation.

7. The Parties concerned stand ready to continue their consultations and dialogues concerning relevant issues, through modalities to be agreed by them, including regular consultations on the observance of this Declaration, for the purpose of promoting good neighbourliness and transparency, establishing harmony, mutual understanding and cooperation, and facilitating peaceful resolution of disputes among them;

8. The Parties undertake to respect the provisions of this Declaration and take actions consistent therewith;

9. The Parties encourage other countries to respect the principles contained in this Declaration;

10. The Parties concerned reaffirm that the adoption of a code of conduct in the South China Sea would further promote peace and stability in the region and agree to work, on the basis of consensus, towards the eventual attainment of this objective.

Done on the Fourth Day of November in the Year Two Thousand and Two in Phnom Penh, the Kingdom of Cambodia.

 

時間軸

Comments (2)

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